by Ernst Senkowski
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Ernst, we need energy.
The simplest system comprises a microphone and a recording unit: reel-to-reel tape recorder, cassette recorder (may also be a digital one), a dictation machine. An experiment consists of two phases: the phase of recording during several minutes maximum, and the phase of listening to what has been recorded. Those units equipped with a ‘fast rewind’ key are superior to the reel-to-reel recorders or slower handling, because they easily allow to repeatedly check signals that appear to be of paranormal character. Other independent listeners should be able to confirm recognizable voices .
 In many cases the speed of paranormal passages differs considerably from the usual speed of speech, mostly it is higher. To permit compensation, such units are helpful which provide for replay speed variation. The tone-pitch changes incidental to them have to be taken together with the good, if no special computer program capable of compensating same is employed.
Loud microphone voices are rare. As to the interpretation and evaluation of the preponderantly appearing non-vocalized aspirated or whispered voices, they require careful consideration with a critical attitude and precautionary measure in order to avoid false conclusions.
Under physiological and technical aspects signals S are only unequivocally recognizable when they lie far enough above the noise level N (see A-3: S/N ratio; B-12.3). Below certain poorly defined limits, which vary from person to person and are also time-related, the human psycho-acoustic system is overstrained. A fixed determination to hear something can induce illusions or hallucinations, open the ‘psi barrier’, and lead over to psychopathological states (‘inner voices’; C-16). To achieve better results, N may be reduced and/or S may be amplified.
A reduction of the noise level – composed of several components – requires relatively expensive equipment. The machines current on the market have been designed for music and dispose of a frequency bandwidth exceeding by far that of speech, reason for which an additional narrow-band filter (approx. 300 to 3000 Hz) is recommendable. The low-noise tape material has to be adapted to the equipment’s properties. The heads need to be cleaned and demagnetized after extended use. It is recommendable to use separate good quality microphones. Their sensitivity can be increased by interposing a narrow-band pre-amplifier with low noise level (40 dB) which should be well matched. The microphone should be safe against the acceptance of solid-borne sound. It should be sure that any unintentional whispering (‘loud thinking’) of attending persons is excluded (HOEVELMANN, BAERWALD). In addition, conversations in the (even distant !) environs, which penetrate through windows, doors, ceilings and walls and elude the participants’ observation can be picked up and recorded, and cause interpretation errors. In view of this, sound-insulated or anechoic rooms are the ideal solution (DETERMEYER 1975: WDR studio, Muenster, FRG).
Remainders of past incompletely degaussed recordings may also entail delusions. Especially when thin tape (e.g., on long-playing cassettes) is used, loud signals tend to magnetically influence adjacent areas on the tape reel (BRAUD 1980). Mechanical imprecisions in tape spooling and incorrect electronic decoupling of the different channels can result in signals being superimposed on other recordings on the tape. Only a few devices are sufficiently protected against interference from the powerful high-frequency fields of regular earthly transmitters (radio and TV broadcasts, public and military radio communications, aeronautical radio services, short-wave amateur broadcasts, CB). A short (microphone) cable can act as an aerial and transmit high-frequency signals to the input components of the recording unit, or to a pre-amplifier, and after (partial) demodulation seem to be language, or similar to language, and can be falsely interpreted as paranormal.
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If conditions have been made secure with these aspects in mind, and clearly recognizable voices refer to the situation or respond to previously posed questions, they are to be classified as paranormal. It is true, however, that the amount of effort and expense involved will normally be justifiable only where experiments are made with scientific purport. The ‘normal’ experimenter may practise the microphone method by using devices current on the market and hope to receive voices of sufficient loudness, or he may decide for a different method.
The formation of microphone voices is possibly hindered by an insufficient availability of physical energy within our system . For instance, the TEs would have to form the voices from thermal noise (such as from the movement of the air molecules), or from the ever existing weak EM fields (KAYE E-31). The attempt to provide additional suitable energy is obvious. And in fact, auxiliary fields occasionally produced a positive effect.
 In a certain manner this assumption is supported by the observation that under similar conditions longer low-voice passages are juxtaposed to shorter loud voices; the product of volume x duration could correspond to the energy available or to the equation of physical effect = energy x time; see E-31, but
 possibly the primary problem lies in the need of matching the ‘time flow speeds’, which differ on the different planes of existence, see E-31.
The distinction made between acoustic and EM fields derives from the human sense organs which reduce to narrow perceivable segments that cosmic ocean of vibrations passing far beyond our comprehension. These narrow frequency bands appear as ‘sound’ and ‘light’ and are processed in our ‘brain computer’ in form of data flows . Correspondingly, auxiliary acoustical and/or EM fields of any complexity and time control can be applied in VOT ‘technology’, though details on their function are unknown.
 – In mathematics the treatment of mechanical and EM vibrations is equally formalized. Instances of synesthesia (under the influence of drugs, too) and mediumistic information suggest more intimate linkages of light and sound; E-33.
One of the acoustic methods uses the sound of murmuring or flushing water from which the voices set off more or less clearly. H.O. KOENIG surmises the efficacious parts to be essentially in the ultrasonic frequency range, and his giving prominence to this has contributed to the development of the ‘Generator’ (see B-9.3.2).
Any kind of sound events in the experimenter’s recording room may reveal to be ‘supermodulated’ when replaying the tape, and may contain paranormal elements. In transition to the radio methods, such sounds may also be used consciously as a ‘raw material’ of speech emitted by one or more tape recorders in the room. This ‘conserve method’ permits to subsequently compare the recording with the originals.
Repeatedly (including the radio methods) low-power EM rectangular vibrations in the immediate vicinity of the recording device improved the forming of voices and induced positive reactions on the part of the TEs. A simple transistor circuit with a – possibly adjustable – fundamental frequency of a few kHz will provide a sufficient source. The spectrum reaches well into the MHz range, with decreasing output of the partial vibrations (higher harmonics) according to the steepness of the pulse edges.
TV sets, too, can increase the probability of voice forming. In addition to the acoustic noise are perhaps active the EM pulses and/or the synchronous ultrasonic vibrations, which are emitted by the line transformer and, with approximately 15 kHz lie in a frequency range of which psychophysiological agencies are known, though they are poorly investigated as yet (BEARDEN 1980, HARTMANN, H.-O. KOENIG: ‘Jeder ….’ (everyone), PRESMAN, SPIRIK: private message, TRAJNA ‘Ignoto ….’).
Modifications of the most straightforward microphone methods have been realized partly with success, but without making their way on a general scale: stereo recordings, artificial head stereo experiments to locate the voices and their possible movements within the room, directional microphones within parabolic reflectors, interfacial microphones, combinations of several microphones.
When the ‘feedback method’ is employed, one disables the mechanism that normally turns off the loudspeaker while the machine is recording. The acoustical signals emitted by it are picked up by the microphone, and, at a sufficiently high level of overall amplification, the system - now in acoustic-electronical feedback state - begins to oscillate (mostly within the tonal frequency range). By carefully turning down the volume controls, or by changing the position, direction and/or spacing of microphone <-> loudspeaker, one arrives at an instable critical level just at the onset of oscillation, a level at which the system reacts to the slightest variations. Within such a field the formation of voices is fostered : Wir sind in der Tonschleife drin (We are inside the sound loop).
 The transvideo procedure developped by SCHREIBER uses an instable opto-electronical feedback system (HAEUSLER, POEPPE). Additional electro-acoustical feedback seemed to have facilitated the formation of paranormal images. See also under Spiricom in B-9.3.2, Infrared (KOENIG). These are observations made by the author.
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